In this article we will discuss about the process of androgenesis, explained with the Success of anther culture is highly dependent on the genotype of the plant. The success of androgenesis dependent on the variety used, the growth . Razdan M.K, An introduction to plant tissue culture, ().Oxford. In vitro androgenesis is an important component of plant biotechnology when the pollen .. In: Korea-China Plant Tissue Culture Symposium, Academia Sinica.

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Several markers are in use. Gynogenic haploids were first developed by San Noem from the ovary cultures of Hordeum vulgare. This is in fact an abnormal pathway induced to achieve in vitro androgenesis. Some workers choose a breeding approach for improvement of genotype before they are used in androgenesis. These media in fact are the same as used in plant cell and tissue cultures. Flowers from relatively younger plants, flowering at the beginning of flower-season are more responsive. When the plants are mature, colchicine in the form of a paste tissuf applied to the axils of leaves.

The selected flower buds of young plants are surface-sterilized and anthers removed along with their filaments. The basic principle is to stop the development of pollen cell into a gamete sex cell and force it to develop into a haploid plant.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

The importance of haploids in the field of plant breeding and genetics was realised long ago. It is therefore important to select only highly responsive genotypes. Haploid plants are of great significance for the production of homozygous lines homozygous plants and for the improvement of plants in plant breeding programmes. The anther cultures are maintained in alternating periods of light hr.


Endomitosis is the phenomenon of doubling the number of chromosomes without tiswue of the nucleus. It is believed that the activated charcoal removes the inhibitors from the medium and facilitates haploid formation. Genetic markers are widely used for the specific identification of haploids. Ultra violet rays or X-rays may be used to induce chromosomal breakage and their subsequent elimination to produce haploids.

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This results in homozygous plants. It helps to develop the multinucleate condition with fewer starch grains. Anther culture is easy, quick and practicable. Thus, anther cultures are reasonably efficient for haploid production. Thereafter, much progress has been made in the anther cultures of wheat, rice, maize, pepper and a wide range of economically important species.

Some of these factors are briefly described. The basic principle of native androgenesis is to stop the conversion of pollen cell into a gamete, and force its development into a plant. When plants are treated with ethreal, multinucleated pollens are produced. Basis, Isolation, Factors and Limitations.

For such plant species, this technique is superior to another culture technique. Injured anthers should not be used in anrogenesis as they result in callusing of anther wall tissue. There are two approaches in androgenesis— anther culture and pollen microspore culture. The two approaches are: During the growth of callus, chromosomal doubling occurs by endomitosis. There are two approaches for the production of haploid plants.

Production of Haploid Plants (With Diagram)

Tiesue obtained from young plants, at the beginning of the flowering season are highly responsive. In recent years, some workers have developed specially designed media for anther cultures of cereals. The use of pesticides should be avoided at least weeks preceding sampling. In general, the production of haploids is better in light.


The plants so produced are referred to as gynogenic haploids. Haploid plants are obtained either by androgenesis or gynogenesis. Sucrose, nitrate, ammonium salts, amino acids and minerals are essential for androgenesis. Young plants, grown under optimal conditions of light, temperature and humidity, are suitable for androgenesis. In general, microspores ranging from tetrad to bi-nucleate stages are more responsive. The uninucleate microspore undergoes a normal unequal division but the pollen embryos are formed from the generative cell alone.

Haploid plants are characterized by possessing only a single set of chromosomes gametophytic number of chromosomes i. When the anther culture medium is supplemented with activated charcoal, enhanced androgenesis is observed. The division of microspore is asymmetrical as in pathway II, but both the cells take part in embryo formation and sporophyte development cluture.

Haploid plants can be produced from immature pollen or microspores male gametophytic cells. Microspores undergoes division in unorganised fashion to give rise to callus and by embryogenic or tissud induction the haploid plantlets may be obtained. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes.