This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
Hence though not-blueness is not a positive mark it serves as a negative mark in relation to blueness. The present aphorism points out that the connection is not a natural one. Indian Philosophy Vol 4 Editor: Verbal testimony, say some, is inference be- cause the object revealed by it is not perceived but inferred. If you deny anyone of them or identify one with the other, an absurd conclusion will follow. It is of two kinds, viz. The aphorism may also be explained as follows: Were it so, we reply, then direction, space, time and ether, should also be enumerated among the causes of perception.
The relations themselves are illusory as the objects which are related havo no self -existence. More- over we attribute to sound the properties of an artificial object, e. The first ten sutras of the text in Sanskrit. Sanskrit, literature in the Siltra or aphoristic style was presumably inaugurated at about.
From the injunction about modification and substitute there arises doubt. Though it is sometimes the lamp, and sometimes the eye, that illumines, you are bound to admit a general notion of illuminator.
This, we reply, is no contradiction since rumour is included in verbal sytra, and presumption, probabi- lity and non-existence are included in inference. The letters ended with an affix form a word. This page was last edited on 8 Aprilat Similarly, sound is non-eternal because it is cog- nised by onr sense as belonging to the genus called sound-ness. It is admitted that a person while listening to a song may not see colour though it comes in contact with gautaa eye.
Chandogya Upanisad, Adhyaya 4, Khanria 4. The present aphorism meets the objection by stating that the irregularity cannot be concealed by mere verbal tricks. Unless you admit the mind you will not be able to explain the internal percep- tion. In the case of conflicting testimony there is, according To them, a strong conviction on vautama side.
Likewise there is, they gajtama, the chance of an end- less doubt owing to the continuity of its cause. Precise knowledge that is, knowledge of the precise character which distinguishes a man from a post being absent, doubt must arise.
A crystal and a wall are found respectively to be transparent and non-transparent.
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Nyaya Theory of Knowledge: If you touch the hand, leg or any other limb of a person you are said to touch the person. Transmigration is the scries of births and deaths. This is the way in which his release is effected and supreme felicity secured. Moreover we perceive non-existence as a mark antecedent to the production of a thing.
Those arc mistaken who maintain that release enables the sonl not only to get rid of all pains but also to attain eternal pleasure, for pleasure is as impermanent as pain and the body. The objects of sense, for instance, are supposed to be established by per- ception: By this we can conjecture that there is ray in the eye of man.
An instance Of the erratic is given below: There is no universal uniformity of connection between a word and njaya meaning. Though the letters be eternal their modification, says an objector, cannot be denied, as some of the eternal things are beyond the grasp of the senses while others possess a different character. Cavil is a kind of wrangling which consists in mere attacks on the opposite side. Sound is said to have no cause of gaugama, hence sound is held by some to be not non-eternal, i.
The denial of non-percoption is the same as the acknowledgment of perception, or in other words, the veil is acknowledged to be existent. It is, some say, not so because remembrance is lodged in the object remembered. Consequently nyya is not eternal. Thus an object may be known through the non-existence absence of its mark.
Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia
In reply we say gautsma not all things cognised by our sense are non-eternal, but only those that belong to a certain genus. In the case of inference, however, the connection between a sign e.
Whatever is all-pervading is inactive, but whatever is a seat of union is not necessarily active.