Cattell, R. B. (). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), /. Crystallized Intelligence: Examples & Definition . These two tasks illustrate two different types of intelligence proposed by Raymond Cattell known as ‘fluid Psychology has offered many theories about intelligence over the. Charles Spearman’s noted student Raymond Cattell expanded on Spearman’s theory of a unified g and explored the difference between two independent but.

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The concept of social status [Abstract. The first factor is what reaches a peak somewhere around the beginning of adolescence, declining slowly thereafter; the second is the product of the first factor. The Science and Ethics of Assessment”.

Cattell and Donald O. It is associated with the action of the whole cortex.

In psychologyfluid and crystallized intelligence respectively abbreviated G f and G c are factors of general intelligemceoriginally identified by Raymond Cattell. Psychiatry 43— Fluid intelligence includes such abilities as pattern recognition, abstract reasoning, and problem-solving. He described the differences in the distribution of intelligence in adults and children and the advantages and disadvantages of using the Intelligence Quotient.

Experimental control of cues determining the rat’s orientation [Abstract]. Brown, September 15, Higher level difficulty in verbal test material [Abstract]. According to Cattell, this could be accomplished by scientifically distinguishing and segregating the population by race, and then implementing eugenics programs that would increase the general intelligence of the population Cattell, At the APA meeting, Cattell discussed his ideas on the differences between measuring intelligence in children and adults and how differences in intelligence quotients might depend on the nature of the tests given.

Hebb, cp. On 11 OctoberHebb sent his final changes to Cattell and stated that: The effects of restricting early experience on the problem-solving capacity of dogs. Hebb presented these subjects with a battery crysta,lized commonly used psychological tests in order to ascertain the extent to which removal of brain tissue in different locations led to impairments in specific cognitive functions.

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Since Matrix Reasoning and Picture Concepts involve the use of visual stimuli and do not require expressive language, they are considered to be non-verbal cattel of Gf. In the s and early s, both Raymond B.

Rand McNally and Company;— Cattell added a statement to his paper that Hebb and he had independently come up with the same idea. Later, Hebb’s students made improvements to the Hebb-Williams maze ontelligence a test of intelligence for the rat Rabinovitch and Rosvold,and used this test to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on problem solving in rats Forgays and Forgays, ; Hymovitch, Fluid and crystallized intelligence are discrete factors of general intelligenceor g.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Cattell’s philosophy, eventually termed Beyondism Cattell,; Mehler,was meant to replace Christianity with an evolutionary based religion that promoted evolutionary progress through group competition to ensure that only the fittest groups would survive.

A New Morality from Science: It is necessary for all logical problem solving.

General intelligence objectively determined and measured. The decline of intellectual power from the age of 16 or thereabouts does not mean that the subject at once begins to be less intelligent. The head of Hebb’s department was George Humphrey, who was crystallozed interested in learning, memory and intelligence Humphrey, From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence therefore, should be called the Hebb-Cattell Theory.

This task assesses the child’s ability to discover the underlying characteristic e. Cattell rewrote the new section of his paper to indicate that Hebb had already developed a similar theory and to indicate how his own ideas differed from crysyallized of Hebb.


He was searching for a set of subtests that would measure different types of intelligence and could be used to assess changes in separate cognitive functions after brain injury. Carrollp. Like fluid ability’s relation to crystallized intelligence, Piaget’s operativity is considered to be prior to, and ultimately provides the foundation for, everyday learning.

Race, Science and Ideology. I thank Randy Engle and the referees for their comments on the manuscript and Ray Klein for permission to use his quotation in the Conclusions.

From tohe tested patients who had surgery of the temporal or frontal lobes to eradicate their epileptic seizures. Cattell’s student John Horn continued to develop the theory of crystallized and fluid intelligence Horn and Cattell, Complex items present puzzles that require two or more sequential mental manipulations of the key to derive a final solution. Login Sign Up Privacy Policy. Crystallized ability consists of discriminatory habits long established in a particular field, originally through the operation of fluid ability, but not [sic] longer requiring insightful perception for their successful operation.

Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Second, he suggested that new intelligence tests needed to be designed for testing adult clinical patients; particularly tests which have separate measures for different abilities. Issues 6anf Cattell,pp. Crystallized intelligence is possibly more amenable to change as it relies on specific, acquired knowledge.